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Globalization means your application is designed in such a way that it will be able to adapt to multiple languages and cultures is called Globalization.
So in order to achieve the same we need to make sure that :-
- Every content in a page/ form should able to be replaced at runtime.
- No hardcoded formatting such as currency formatting, date time formatting is applied in the application.
Now once such application is developed, some inputs will be added to every UI. For instance input means, telling system meaning of every word in every other language (example Hello is called as Holla in Spanish) so that it can be brought to local level. This process where globalized application is customized for a given culture is called Localization.
In general we create resource files, set culture for a page or an application and that is Localization.
And Localization perfectly works and application get translated and displayed in respected culture because its globalized means its created keeping in mind that it will get translated.
See the following video on Session VS Viewstate difference ( ASP.NET Training and interview questions):-